* This page is still a work in progress. Hang in there! :)
An intervention is the usage of the right intervention at the right time for what that child needs. It IS NOT a packaged program or set of textbooks. It is really about differentiating and tailoring instruction to work with a child that is a struggling reader.
I suggest reading the 30 Million Word Gap (below) to learn about the reading crisis we have and how early it begins. You can also download it HERE.
What is RtI?
by Tina Winkle
Response to Intervention (RtI) is a general education initiative written into the IDEA 2004 special education law. The purpose of RtI is to give educators a framework to determine early intervention services.
RtI was created because research and multiple long-term studies found that students can learn when given differentiated instruction, explicit instruction, and by using a scientifically research-based curriculum..
RtI involves gathering data through assessment and progress-monitoring. Educators then determine the appropriate interventions the child needs and also the instructional plans the whole class needs.
There is no specific RtI model prescribed by the IDEA law, and there are variations of three or four-tier models. The bottom line is that responsive instruction benefits all learners. In other words, meet your students’ needs.
From Anna Schults and John Wolf's Three Tier Reading Model PPT
Dr. Tihen's RtI Fluid Chart
Your school may already use the concept of RtI or Response to Intervention, or you may have heard about RtI and wondered what it was.
RtI was developed in the late 1970s by researchers looking for methods to identify students with learning disabilities that did not respond to regular educational methods from those students who were struggling but did not need intensive intervention. RtI became reauthorized in 2004 under the IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act).
RtI is a 3 tiered system model. It has expanded in education to be more than just something used to identify certain students and now it is utilized to help identify all students. They fit into the three tiers. Students can move up downward in tiers but we do not want them to go backward. For example, a tier 3 student can move into tier 2.
Educators determine which tier a student fits into based on continual assessments, or progress monitoring.
Tier 1 students are roughly on grade level or above. Tier 1 students receive the core instructional program (whatever your curriculum is) along with small group instruction/guided reading. This usually means 90-120 minutes daily of reading instruction or activities. These students can be progress monitored about once a month.
Tier 2 students need additional support. These students are often referred to as your “bubble kids” since some of them are near tier 1 but not quite yet ready. I recommend progress monitoring these students every other week. Tier 2 students need the core of 90-120 minutes daily of reading instruction/activities plus an additional 15-30 minutes daily.
Tier 3 students are your students who do not make expected progress through the support of tier 2 interventions, or those that fall way below the benchmark. I would progress monitor these students once a week if possible. Tier 3 students need individualized and intensive interventions. One-on-one time is preferred. Now these students need the 90-120 minutes daily of reading/literacy activities and instruction plus an additional 30-90 minutes on top of that.
I know it sounds like a lot BUT literacy centers, small group, guided reading, silent reading, writing, read-alouds, phonics, etc. all go toward that time. And so does time with an ESL/ELL teacher, Title I teacher, Instructional/Literacy Coach and Reading Specialist. Every little bit counts!!!
Tier Two Word Lists
Follow this link to the Flocabulary Lists of grade-level tier two words. Vocabulary should always be taught in context. These lists should serve only as a reference to guide teachers in selecting tier two words. These should NOT be used as randomly assigned spelling or vocabulary lists.
Bender, W.N. & Shores, C. (2007). Response to Intervention: A Practical Guide for Every Teacher.
As a result of NCLB legislation and the reauthorization of IDEA 2004, Response to Intervention (
is now a mandated process for documenting the existence or nonexistence of a
learning disability. For educators new
to the RTI approach, Response to
Intervention presents an overview of key concepts with guidelines for
accountability practices that benefit students in inclusive classrooms. Presenting the three tiers of RTI techniques, the authors demonstrate how general
and special education teachers can use research-based interventions effectively
to individualize instruction, monitor individual student progress, and
implement strategies to meet the specific needs of all students. Featuring helpful charts and reproducibles,
this timely resource is sure to become a valuable guide as educators implement
programs to document how individual students respond to specific educational
Brown-Chidsey, R. & Steege, M.W. (2005). Response to Intervention Principles and Strategies for Effective Practice.
Meeting a key need, this is the first comprehensive guide to implementing a school-wide response to intervention (
The book is geared to helping practitioners understand and respond to No
Child Left Behind and to the new special education eligibility guidelines
outlined in IDEA 2004. Presented are the
theoretical and empirical foundations of the approach and a clear, 10-step
model for conducting RTI
procedures with students experiencing learning difficulties. Special features include reproducible
planning and implementation worksheets and more than two dozen overhead
transparency masters for use in RTI
training sessions, with lay-flat binding to facilitate photocopying. For optimal utility, RTI
training materials are also available online as PowerPoint slides and PDFs at
www.guilford.com/rti. This title is part
of the Practical Intervention in the
Schools Series, edited by Kenneth W. Merrell.
Haager, D., Klingner, J., & Vaughn, S. (Eds.). (2007). Evidence-Based
Practices for Response to Intervention.
Reading Baltimore: Brookes Publishing.
In this must-read volume, some of the biggest names in reading research share what they know about today's hottest topic in education—Response to Intervention (
the key to helping struggling students before they fall behind. More than 30 expert contributors reveal what
the latest research says about RTI's
Three-Tier Aproach: the core reading
program for all students, supplementary instruction for children with early
reading difficulties, and intensive intervention for children who still
struggle. The first and only
comprehensive research synthesis on RTI,
this book lays the groundwork for implementation of scientifically validated
reading programs that reduce over-identification of students in special
education and provide the best and earliest help to students who struggle. A necessary addition to the library of every
present and future education professional.
Mellard, D.F. & Johnson, E. (2007).
Practitioner's Guide to Implementing Response to Intervention. Port Chester: National Professional Resources, Inc.
Moats, L.C. (2000). Speech To Print: Language Essentials for Teachers.
Baltimore: Brookes Publishing.
Why study language? Because learning the basics of language helps you understand your students' needs and to teach reading, spelling, and writing explicitly and systematically. In this thorough and well-written book, you'll . . .
* understand the organization of written and spoken English
* discover the connection between language structure and how individuals learn to read
* find helpful chapter exercises and self-tests to ensure you master the language skills presented
* get examples of students' writing to help you interpret children's mistakes
* encounter sample lesson plans and adaptations that apply the concepts of language you are learning
All of this will enable you to recognize, understand, and solve the problems individuals with or without disabilities may encounter when learning to read and write. Also available, The Speech to Print Workbook: Language Exercises for Teachers. Now instructors who use Speech to Print in teacher education courses have a companion workbook for their students. Containing all the exercises in Speech to Print, this engaging, interactive workbook gives teachers a wide variety of exercises, including fill-in-the-blanks, multiple choice, matching activities, and translation. As they work through the book, they'll expand their own language of the building blocks of language, learn to recognize and understand the problems with language children may encounter, and discover strategies for teaching children crucial reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills.
Rudebusch, J. (2008). The Source for
RTI. East Moline: LinguiSystems, Inc.
affect SLP services? What is my
role? Where do I start? Find answers in this Source that discusses
the principles and implementation of RTI,
then brings it down to the real world with examples of appropriate
interventions for specific speech-language conditions at each tier. Outcome:
* Know how to apply the
RTI system to everyday
work and provide effective interventions within the RTI
* This resource brings the
RTI issues together in
an easy-to-understand format. You’ll learn:
* Why the
RTI movement started and why it’s important in
special education with specific focus on the implication for SLPs
* The eight core principles of
RTI that are
essential for developing a strong school infrastructure and providing effective
instruction for every student
RTI and the Three-Tier Model of School Support
including the key elements that need to be included at each tier and activities
SLPs can implement at each tier
RTI and data-driven decisions, including how to use
data from assessments to make decisions about intervention, the importance of
integrated data management tools, which data is best to use at each tier, and
the SLP’s role in RTI data
RTI problem-solving teams work, how to staff them,
activities to use in a problem-solving process, and the role of the SLP in
RTI and special education eligibility
determination, including specific information about speech-language evaluations
and how to determine the appropriate amount of intervention
* The range of speech and language services, both direct and indirect, that may be considered in a three-tier
* Special education services in public school change with
the four critical components needed to improve teaching and learning in
schools, the impact of continuous improvement plans on student performance in
special education, school case studies, and the impact of continuous
improvement in speech-language pathology
The appendix includes sample planning, scheduling, and evaluation forms; scheduling helps; flow charts; and more ready-to-use tools. Use this resource to inform colleagues, to jump-start
in your school, or to maintain your active membership on your school’s
problem-solving team. You’ll have the
information you need to build and/or sustain a program and bring the best level
and quality of service to your students.
Wright, J. (2007).
RTI Toolkit: A Practical Guide for Schools. Port Chester: National Professional Resources, Inc.
This book will provide school administrators and teachers with the essential techniques, resources, and guidelines to start a comprehensive Response To Intervention process in their own schools. The reader will learn how to: Help stakeholders buy-in to the
RTI process Inventory and organize intervention
resources Create research-based and classroom-friendly student intervention
plans Set objective goals for student improvement Apply decision rules to
determine when a student who fails to respond to intervention should be
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2006). Early Intervening Services. Retrieved
February 25, 2009 from the
ASHA website: http://www.asha.org/about/legislation-advocacy/federal/idea/04-law-early-services.htm
This site reviews what IDEA says about early intervening services and the implications for SLPs.
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2009). Responsiveness to Intervention. Retrieved
February 25, 2009 from the
ASHA website: http://www.asha.org/members/slp/schools/prof-consult/RtoI.htm
This site contains text and additional web links which provide information relevant to
including a definition, a discussion of SLP roles, professional development
products, and other resources and organizations.
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2008). School-Based Service Delivery. Retrieved
February 25, 2009 from the ASHA
This site contains many additional web links which provide information regarding the process of creating change, service delivery models, collaborative services, and inclusion.
National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (2005). Responsiveness to Intervention and Learning Disabilities. Retrieved
February 25, 2009 from
Learning Disabilities Association of America website: http://www.ldaamerica.org/pdf/rti2005.pdf
The purpose of this National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) report is to examine the concepts, potential benefits, practical issues, and unanswered questions associated with responsiveness to intervention (
and learning disabilities (LD). A brief overview of the approach is provided,
including attributes, characteristics, and promising features, as well as
issues, concerns, unanswered questions, and research needs. Issues related to RTI implementation, including use as an eligibility
mechanism, parent participation, structure and components, professional roles
and competencies, and needed research, are addressed. The report is neither a
position paper nor a “how-to guide” for implementing an RTI
The reauthorized Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) was signed into law on
Dec. 3, 2004, by President George W.
Bush. The provisions of the act became
effective on July 1, 2005,
with the exception of some of the elements pertaining to the definition of a
“highly qualified teacher” that took effect upon the signing of the act. The final regulations were published on Aug. 14, 2006. This is one in a series of documents that
covers a variety of high-interest topics and brings together the regulatory
requirements related to those topics to support constituents in preparing to
implement the new regulations. This
document addresses the final regulatory requirements regarding early
RTI: The Standard Process Protocol Solution. Ensuring Fidelity through Standard
Problem-Solving Tasks and Scientifically Based Progress Monitoring. Changes in IDEA legislation are now finalized
and allow Local Education Agencies some additional latitude to incorporate RTI in the process to identify children with
special needs. The question for many practitioners is “How can we do this in a
way that is accurate, efficient, and accountable?”
The answer is AIMSweb. AIMSweb offers a solution for implementing
RTI as a data-drive component of the special services
eligibility process. It is designed to provide schools and school psychologists
with evidence-based assessment tools to evaluate the student’s response to
intervention in the basic skills, such as reading and math – both on grade
level and below grade level.
1. Assess skills directly, frequently, and continuously using proven
2. Compare expected or targeted rates of progress to actual rates of progress using our RtI Progress Monitor
3. Plan, intervene, and document using the Case Manager interface
products: http://pearsonassess.com/HaiWeb/Cultures/en-us/site/Community/Psychology/results.htm?Community= RTI
Moats, L.C. (2007). LETRS: Language Essentials for Teachers of
and Spelling. Reading Frederick: Sopris West.
LETRS is a professional development program that responds to the need for high-quality literacy educators at all levels. Developed by Louisa C. Moats, EdD, LETRS provides the deep foundational knowledge necessary to understand how students learn to read, write, and spell—and why some of them struggle. The program's underlying principles are the groundwork in many scientific research reports, including “Blueprint for Professional Development,” Reading First Leadership Academy, U.S. Department of Education (Moats, 2002); “The Missing Foundation in Teacher Education,” American Educator (Moats, 1995); and “Measuring Teachers' Content Knowledge of Language and Reading,” Annals of Dyslexia (Moats and Foorman, 2003). LETRS provides educators with a core understanding of language structure and helps them gain in-depth instructional information to complement their teaching practices. Rather than replacing the core basal reading program, LETRS brings deeper knowledge of reading instruction by addressing each component—phoneme awareness; phonics, decoding, spelling, and word study; oral language development; vocabulary; reading fluency; comprehension; and writing—as well as the foundational concepts that link them. LETRS is delivered through a combination of print materials (Modules), technology (Interactive CD-ROMs), and professional development (Institutes).
offers the only explicit vocabulary intervention program tied to evidence-based
research and curriculum standards and developed for both general and special
educators. This sophisticated tool
enables you to meet guidelines set by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
(NCLB) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 (IDEA)—which
require that teachers and specialists use evidence-based teaching practices to
ensure their students receive high-quality instruction and intervention. Brief,
focused, and flexible, The Bridge of Vocabulary is ideally suited for all three
tiers of the RtI model. This highly
relevant resource directly links specific vocabulary intervention with a research-based
strategy and presents a systematic, intensive approach to help you foster
vocabulary and language growth. Written
for multiple users, The Bridge of Vocabulary facilitates collaboration among
SLPs, classroom teachers, reading teachers, and other education
professionals—an important evidence-based practice. Bridge of Vocabulary
Sexton, S.M. (2009). 5-Minute Kids: A Drill Based Program for Students with Speech Sound Disorders. Lampeer: Author.
5 Minute Kids is a program for delivering services to students with speech sound disorders by scheduling short, individual drill sessions. This program requires little planning for the professional and minimal time out of the classroom for the student. The child receives therapy in the hallway for designated number of 5 to 10 minute sessions, based on therapy needs. Over the last 5 years, data has shown that this model is more effective than traditional group therapy in achieving speech and language goals. The 5 Minute Kids program:
* Offers ideas for intensive drill activities for articulation and phonology students
* Increases instructional time in the regular education classroom
* Provides opportunities for individualizing goals and services
* Organizes data materials efficiently
* Can be used with Response to Intervention (RtI) services
Taps, J. (2006). An Innovative Education Approach to Addressing Articulation Differences (Offering short-term, intensive general education services to children with single sound errors in San Diego City Schools). ASHA Schools Conference,
This document provides a summary of Ms. Taps poster session presentation and a link to the Articulation Differences and Disorders Manual developed by the San Diego Schools. Two additional websites have since been developed: http://jltaps.com/ and http://slpath.com/.
Wiechmann, J. & Balfanz, D. (2009). ARtIC
LAB: A Bilingual Response to Intervention Program
for Articulation. Greenville:
Super Duper, Inc.
Treat mild articulation deficits in ten weeks or less, and cut your caseload in half! ARtIC
LAB® is a bilingual
Response to Intervention (RtI) program for elementary school students (Grades
1–5) who exhibit mild articulation deficits in English or Spanish. This 20-hour, evidence-based program provides
sound placement instructions, intensive drill work, and sound generalization
activities PRIOR to referral for speech-language pathology services. ARtIC LAB®
* English-speaking students with only one to two of the following sounds in error: R, S, L, SH, and/or
* Spanish-speaking students with only one to two of the following sounds in error: R, S, and/or
Field-tested in a culturally diverse school district in the
area, ARtIC Houston,
Texas LAB® can reduce the size of your caseload as well
as meet IDEA 2004 requirements to assess a student's responsiveness to
intervention prior to referral to special education. During one semester of intervention, 89
students received 20 hours of intervention over a ten-week period. Of these 89
students, only two cases resulted in referrals to special education and testing
for speech therapy. The ARtIC Lab®
consists of seven (7) learning stations that maximize the number of sound
productions for each student. Each day,
the SLP chooses up to five (5) stations based on the number of students in the
group (e.g., three  students equals three  stations). The maximum number of students in a group is
five (5). Over a 30-minute session (four
days per week), students rotate through each of the stations. The fun activities and games in the ARtIC Lab®
require limited concentration allowing the student to attend to and practice
his/her target sounds while staying motivated. Students learn quickly to monitor and
self-correct their sound errors. There
are two ways to purchase ARtIC LAB®
! You can purchase the complete
bilingual kit, or you can purchase the English version. There are no extra forms to buy, ever! Print
everything you need from the CD-ROM.